03 June 2013

Lightest Exoplanet, HD95086b, Discovered by VLT 300 Light Years Away

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The Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the ESO has directly imaged an exoplanet that is about four to five times the mass of Jupiter. This makes this planet, the lightest exoplanet imaged.

The planet, known as HD95086 b, orbits a young star that is a bit more massive than the sun known as HD 95086. It's orbit is around two times the distance that Neptune orbits the sun and this star system is around 300 light years from the Earth.

HD95086 b is the first exoplanet in nine years that was directly imaged. Only around 12 exoplanets have been directly observed so far. Most other exoplanets were spotted by observing the dips of brightness produced when planets crossed in front of the stars it has been orbiting (transit method). Others have been discovered by studying the wobbling of a star caused by the gravitational pull of the orbiting planet known as the radial-velocity method.

There are over 3000 discovered exoplanets, 779 of these have been identified. The remaining 2300+ are being observed by the Kepler space telescope for confirmation.

VLT Directly Images An Exoplanet

Although nearly a thousand exoplanets have been detected indirectly — most using the radial velocity or transit methods — and many more candidates await confirmation, only a dozen exoplanets have been directly imaged. Nine years after ESO's Very Large Telescope captured the first image of an exoplanet, the planetary companion to the brown dwarf 2M1207, the same team has caught on camera what is probably the lightest of these objects so far.

“Direct imaging of planets is an extremely challenging technique that requires the most advanced instruments, whether ground-based or in space,” says Julien Rameau (Institut de Planetologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble, France), first author of the paper announcing the discovery. “Only a few planets have been directly observed so far, making every single discovery an important milestone on the road to understanding giant planets and how they form.”

In the new observations, the likely planet appears as a faint but clear dot close to the star HD 95086. A later observation also showed that it was slowly moving along with the star across the sky. This suggests that the object, which has been designated HD 95086 b, is in orbit around the star. Its brightness also indicates that it has a predicted mass of only four to five times that of Jupiter.

The team used NACO, the adaptive optics instrument mounted on one of the 8.2-metre Unit Telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). This instrument allows astronomers to remove most of the blurring effects of the atmosphere and obtain very sharp images. The observations were made using infrared light and a technique called differential imaging, which improves the contrast between the planet and dazzling host star.

Video: Astrophysicist Lars Buchhave on planet formation

The newly discovered planet orbits the young star HD 95086 at a distance of around 56 times the distance from the Earth to the Sun, twice the Sun–Neptune distance. The star itself is a little more massive than the Sun and is surrounded by a debris disc. These properties allowed astronomers to identify it as an ideal candidate to harbour young massive planets. The whole system lies some 300 light-years away from us.

The youth of this star, just 10 to 17 million years, leads astronomers to believe that this new planet probably formed within the gaseous and dusty disc that surrounds the star. “Its current location raises questions about its formation process. It either grew by assembling the rocks that form the solid core and then slowly accumulated gas from the environment to form the heavy atmosphere, or started forming from a gaseous clump that arose from gravitational instabilities in the disc.” explains Anne-Marie Lagrange, another team member. “Interactions between the planet and the disc itself or with other planets may have also moved the planet from where it was born.”

Another team member, Gaël Chauvin, concludes, “The brightness of the star gives HD 95086 b an estimated surface temperature of about 700 degrees Celsius. This is cool enough for water vapour and possibly methane to exist in its atmosphere. It will be a great object to study with the forthcoming SPHERE instrument on the VLT. Maybe it can also reveal inner planets in the system — if they exist.”


European Southern Observatory
Astrophysical Journal Letters
Discovery of a probable 4 5 Jupiter-mass exoplanet to HD 95086 by direct-imaging
Is This Speck of Light an Exoplanet?
Astrophysicist Researches Into The Requirements of Planetary Formation
Billions of Habitable Planets In Milky Way According to High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS)
Astronomers Can Now Study Atmosphere of Exoplanet Tau Boötis b
Hubble Space Telescope Observes The Atmosphere Of Exoplanet HD 189733b
Two Planets Within Habitable Zone Discovered Orbiting Kepler 62
Exoplanet Discovered In Alpha Centauri Star System
Planet Forming In Gas Cloud Near Star HD 100546 Discovered
Planet Floating Freely Through Space Without An Orbit Discovered
Planet Forming Disc of Gas And Dust Around Star HD 142527 Observed
MIT News: NASA's Kepler Observatory Detects Planet Slowly Disintegrating